Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar(Jalal ud-Din Muhammad Akbar), also known as Shahanshah Akbar-E-Azam, Akbar the Great or Mahabali Shahanshah (15 october 1542 – 27 October 1605), was the third Mughal Emperor. He was of Timurid descent; the son of Humayun, and the grandson of Babur, the ruler who founded the Mughal dynasty in India. At the end of his reign in 1605 the Mughal empire covered most of the northern and central India and was one of the most powerful empires of its age.
Akbar was thirteen years old when he ascended the Mughal throne in Delhi, following the death of his father Naseeruddin Muhammad Humayun. During his reign, he eliminated military threats from the powerful Pashtun descendants of Sher Shah Suri, and at the Second Battle of Panipat he defeated the newly self-declared Hindu king Hemu. It took him nearly two more decades to consolidate his power and bring all the parts of northern and central India into his direct realm. He influenced the whole of the Indian Subcontinent as he ruled a greater part of it as an emperor. As an emperor, Akbar solidified his rule by pursuing diplomacy with the powerful Hindu Rajput caste, and by admitting Rajput princesses in his harem.
Akbar's reign significantly influenced art and culture in the country. He took a great interest in painting, and had the walls of his palaces adorned with murals. Besides encouraging the development of the Mughal school, he also patronised the European style of painting. He was fond of literature, and had several Sanskrit works translated into Persian and Persian scriptures translated in Sanskrit apart from getting many Persian works illustrated by painters from his court. During the early years of his reign, he had an intolerant attitude towards Hindus and the other religions, but he exercised great tolerance after he began marriage alliances with Rajput princesses.
His administration included numerous Hindu landlords, courtiers and military generals. He began a series of religious debates where Muslim scholars would debate religious matters with Jains, Sikhs, Hindus, Carvaka atheists, Jews, and Portuguese Roman Catholic Jesuits. He treated these religious leaders with great consideration, irrespective of their faith, and revered them. He even founded a religious cult, the Din-i-Ilahi (Divine Faith), which included the teachings of all the major religions of the world but it amounted only to a form of personality cult for Akbar and started dissolving after his death
Humayun was succeeded by his minor son, Akbar. on Friday, the 14th of February, 1556 A.D. He had experienced so many viccissi-tudes of fortune during the days of his father that he gained practical experience of ruling a kingdom beyond his age. He appointed Bairam Khan, his father's loving and loyal friend, as the Prime Minister and entrusted him with the regency. By 1575 A.D., Akbar had expanded his empire from the borders of Cen¬tral Asia to Assam in the east, to the Vindhya mountains in the south and to Gujarat in the west. When he was 35, he became the master of the great empire of India. Akbar ruled for a long period of 50 years. He struck silver
Shahrukhi and dumpy copper coins similar to those issued by his predecessors. He also con¬tinued Sher Shah's silver rupiyah coins. His gold coins weighing 11 mashas (about 170 grains) were Known as "muhar". Silver Shahrukhis of 72 grains weight and silver rupiyahs 198 grains in weight had a great circulation. His copper coins of 330 grains weight were known as "dam". 40 dams were equal to 1 silver rupiyah and 9 rupiyahs were equal to 1 muhar in value.
Akbar also struck gold muhars which had a value of 10 and 12 rupiyahs. He brought in¬novation in his coins He was the first Mughal emperor who issued fractional coins in gold, silver and copper. Silver rupiyah coins were struck in three denominations, viz.. 1, 1/2 and 1/4. of a rupiyah. His copper coins in the de¬nomination of 1/2 were known as nasfi. 1/4 as dam and 1/8 part as damn or damdi Akbar also struck heavy copper coins of 632 to 644 grains weight which were known as "Tanka" Inscription on these coins was simple The obverse of the coin carried only two words—"Tanka Akbari" and the reverse showed the llahi year. Fractional tanka coins In 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 denominations were popular.
Akbar brought about a change in the shape of his coins. He issued gold, silver and copper coins in round, square, rectangular and mihrabi shapes. He was the only Mughal emperor who issued 26 types (varieties) of gold coins. Some popular gold coins to name are—Emperor. Rahas. Atmah. Binsat, Jugul, Lalejalali, Aftabi, llahi, Lale Jalahi. Adalgutka, Maherabi. Muini, Gird, Dhan, Salimi. Man, Samni, Kala. Rabi The Shahenshah gold coin weighed 102 tolas Most of these were commemorative coins His name was struck on Shahrukhi silver coins either with and without titles on the reverse, which read as Jalaluddin Muha