Before 1835 all the British India coins of the three presidencies were issued both from the Mughal mints and  the E I C mints. Both these coins are in Mughal style with Persian script. The Mughal emperors name, royal title, mint name, Julus formula, Hejira era and two digit Regnal years are all in Persian script. It is difficult for presidency coins collectors to identify these coins. By following the below mentioned hints you will be able to easily identify a Mughal style coin.  The animated coin photo is a two rupees madras presidency coin. It is an excellent example to show all the features of a typical Mughal style coin. Click here to open the picture in a separate window and follow along the proper way to identify the coin. The weight and diameter of the coin also help in proper identification. Also note the Persian letters are drawn out. This makes it look like the letters are dividing the coin into sections.
Step #1: Identify the weight and diameter of the coin. Usually smaller denomination coins are lighter and smaller and vice versa.
Step #2:  The coin has two sides. Obverse and reverse. The obverse side of the coins is identified by the four digit Hejira year in the topmost segment of the coin. The reverse side of the coin is identified by the two digit Regnal year or Julus year and various mint marks that might be present in some coins.
Step #3: Identifying the details on the obverse side: The coin can be seen in 2 different ways. Either you can think there are 3 sections or 5 lines. Both ways have been depicted in our checklist. I will explain the 5 line system here. Please note the Persian script is to be read from right to left, Persian numerical are read left to right.
         Line # 1: AH year or Four digit Hejira year (year of issue). This Hejira year means 'Flight', the flight of Prophet Mohammad from Mecca in the AD 622, July 16th. The Islamic year is based on a Lunar year which has 354 days unlike the Christian year which is based on Solar year and has 365 and 1/4 days. 100 years of the Islamic year is equal to 97 years in Christian calendar. Hejira year is represented as AH year (Anno Hejira). To convert the Hejira year to Christian year, subtract 3% from a given AH year and add 622 to subtracted value, you have your Christian year. Example: AH year 1172 = AD 1759 (3% of 1172 is 35.16, subtract 35 from 1172 = 1137 add 622 to 1137 you have 1759). The Persian numerical is to be read from left to right. Click here for the Persian number chart. In some cases the year has been written in Persian script as a word instead of a number. Click here to see years written in Persian words.
         Line #2: It is the name of the reigning emperor. Please click here to identify the proper emperor's name. There are nine Mughal emperor's. The emperor's name is depicted both in Persian and English scripts. Both these line constitute the top section of a coin in all denominations. If the coins size is small, you will be able to see partial print of the entire script. What you see varies from coin to coin.
         Line #3 ,4 & 5: This constitutes the middle section & lower sections: It usually contains the Emperors title or couplet praising him in Persian script. Again a chart is given below showing these royal titles or couplets in Persian script along with same in
English translation.

Step#4:Identifying the details on the reverse side: Again the coin can be seen in 2 different ways. Either you can think there are 3 sections or 5 lines. Both ways have been depicted in our checklist. I will explain the 5 line system here. You need to start from line # 5. There are only 2 varieties: Julus formula and abbreviated Julus formula.
          Line #5: Mint name. Click here for a detailed list of all the Madras presidency mints.
          Line # 4: The word Zarb represented by the hook like letter (present on the right hand side) and long line which divides the 2nd and 3rd section. This word means Struck at mint ___. These two line form the bottom section of the reverse side of the coin.
          Line # 3: This line represents the year of a emperors reign. The word Zarb is the 3rd line which means in the year (_ _) of his reign. There are usually 2 to 3 symbols on top of the 3rd line, the Regnal Year (Julus) & mint mark. The regnal year is usually two numericals in Persian script, which indicates year of the emperors rule. Note: In some coins numeral '1' is written as 'Ahd' instead of '1'. These are read left to right like English. The mint marks are either an open lotus, closed lotus or a rose indicating various mints. Click here to know more about the mint marks.  This line constitutes the middle section of the coin.
           Line # 2 & 1: These constitutes the top of the coin. The second line is 'Maimanat' and the 1st line is 'Manus'. Both these words mean 'of his reign of tranquil prosperity.
In the abbreviated Julus formula the top two lines are missing.


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