Shah Jahan Prince Khurram, who would later be known as Emperor Shah Jahan, ascended to the throne after a tumultuous succession battle. With the wealth created by Akbar, the Mughal kingdom was probably the richest in the world. Prince Khurram gave himself the title of Shah Jahan, the ‘King of the World’ and this was the name that was immortalized by history. With his imagination and aspiration, Shah Jahan gained a reputation as an aesthete par excellence. He built the black marble pavilion at the Shalimar Gardens in Srinagar and a white marble palace in Ajmer. He also built a tomb for his father, Jahangir in Lahore and built a massive city Shahajanabad in Delhi but his imagination surpassed all Mughal glory in his most famous building the Taj Mahal. It was in Shahajanabad that his daughter Jahanara built the marketplace called Chandni Chowk. His beloved wife Arjuman Banu (daughter of Asaf Khan and niece of Nur Jahan) died while delivering their fourteenth child in the year 1631. The distraught emperor started building a memorial for her the following year. The Taj Mahal, named for Arjuman Banu, who was called Mumtaz Mahal, became one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The great Jama Masjid built by him was the largest in India at the time. He renamed Delhi after himself as Shahjahanabad. The Red Fort made of red sandstone built during his reign near Jama Masjid around the same time came to be regarded as the seat of power of India itself. The Prime Minister of India addresses the nation from the ramparts of this fort on Independence day even to this age. Shah Jahan also built or renovated forts in Delhi and in Agra. White marble chambers that served as living quarters and other halls for public audiences are examples of classic Mughal architecture. Here in Agra fort, Shah Jahan would spend eight of his last years as a prisoner of his son, Aurangzeb shuffling between the hallways of the palace, squinting at the distant silhouette of his famous Taj Mahal on the banks of River Jamuna. Shah Jahan on his accession, immediately forbade the use of coins bearing the name of Nurjahan and also the coins with Zodiac signs. He imposed death penalty on the offender. All these coins were returned to the mint and melted As such, these coins are rare. No doubt some spurious coins are available with coin-dealers in big cities like Bombay. Calcutta and Delhi Shah Jahan introduced use of Kalima on all his coins. His coins with the Kalima and the mint's name on one side and the emperor's name with the titles on the other were common. He issued a variety of gold and silver coins In round, square and octagonal shapes. He placed inscriptions of the Kalima within a circle or square. Shah Jahan issued special coins of Nisar and half Nisar for presentation and for giving alms. He had all the weaknesses of the kings. His critical illness triggered off a war of succession among his sons. Aurangzeb, one of his sons, imprisoned him and took over as the emperor on July 21. 1658 and assumed the title of Ala-mgir. He had profound faith in Islam. He forbade the use of Kalima on his coins because he believed that the holy words would be defiled when the coins pass into the hands of Kafirs (Hindus). To satisfy this whim, he earned his name and his title on the obverse and the name of the mint, the year and a couplet on the reverse of the com. He opened new mints at Bijapur. Ahmednagar and Solapur from where he struck gold and silver coins. He continued the square shaped coins of Shah Jahan as well as the silver Nisar coins.